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Introductory Networking

Task 1 Introduction

The aim of this room is to provide a beginner’s introduction to the basic principles of networking. Networking is a massive topic, so this really will just be a brief overview; however, it will hopefully give you some foundational knowledge of the topic, which you can build upon for yourself_._

The topics that we’re going to cover in this room are:

  • The OSI Model
  • The TCP/IP Model
  • How these models look in practice
  • An introduction to basic networking tools
No answer needed

Task 2 The OSI Model: An Overview

Which layer would choose to send data over TCP or UDP?


Which layer checks received packets to make sure that they haven’t been corrupted?


In which layer would data be formatted in preparation for transmission?


Which layer transmits and receives data?


Which layer encrypts, compresses, or otherwise transforms the initial data to give it a standardised format?


Which layer tracks communications between the host and receiving computers?


Which layer accepts communication requests from applications?


Which layer handles logical addressing?


When sending data over TCP, what would you call the “bite-sized” pieces of data?


Which layer would the FTP protocol communicate with?


Which transport layer protocol would be best suited to transmit a live video?


Task 3 Encapsulation

How would you refer to data at layer 2 of the encapsulation process (with the OSI model)?


How would you refer to data at layer 4 of the encapsulation process (with the OSI model), if the UDP protocol has been selected?


What process would a computer perform on a received message?


Which is the only layer of the OSI model to add a trailer during encapsulation?

data link

Does encapsulation provide an extra layer of security (Aye/Nay)?


Task 4 The TCP/IP Model

Which model was introduced first, OSI or TCP/IP?


Which layer of the TCP/IP model covers the functionality of the Transport layer of the OSI model (Full Name)?


Which layer of the TCP/IP model covers the functionality of the Session layer of the OSI model (Full Name)?


The Network Interface layer of the TCP/IP model covers the functionality of two layers in the OSI model. These layers are Data Link, and?.. (Full Name)?


Which layer of the TCP/IP model handles the functionality of the OSI network layer?


What kind of protocol is TCP?


What is SYN short for?


What is the second step of the three way handshake?


What is the short name for the “Acknowledgement” segment in the three-way handshake?


Task 5 Networking Tools Ping

What command would you use to ping the website?


What is the IPv4 address?

What switch lets you change the interval of sent ping requests?

By using ping -h I got the help menu. Looking through it I noticed -i is used for interval.


What switch would allow you to restrict requests to IPv4?


What switch would give you a more verbose output?


Task 6 Networking Tools Traceroute

Use traceroute on
Can you see the path your request has taken?

What switch would you use to specify an interface when using Traceroute?


What switch would you use if you wanted to use TCP SYN requests when tracing the route?


Which layer of the TCP/IP model will traceroute run on by default (Windows)?


Task 7 Networking Tools WHOIS

Perform a whois search on

This ends up giving a lot of information. To make it easier to answer these questions I used the grep command to filter for a keyword.

What is the registrant postal code for

Using whois | grep Registrant I output all lines from the whois output that contain the word Registrant.


When was the domain first registered (Format: DD/MM/YYYY)?

For this question I piped the output to grep Date to display all dates mentioned in the whois output.


Perform a whois search on

Which city is the registrant based in?

For this question I used the command whois | grep City.


What is the name of the golf course that is near the registrant address for

To get the full registrant address I used the command whois | grep Registrant. This gave me the address: One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052.

When I looked this address up in Google Maps I found this location.

When I updated the Google Maps search to “golf courses near One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052” I found the closest golf course nearby is Bellevue Golf Course

Bellevue Golf Course

What is the registered Tech Email for

For this question I used the command whois | grep Email to search for emails listed in the whois information.

Task 8 Networking Tools Dig

What is DNS short for?

Domain Name System

What is the first type of DNS server your computer would query when you search for a domain?


What type of DNS server contains records specific to domain extensions (i.e. .com,, etc)? Use the long version of the name.

Top-Level Domain

Where is the very first place your computer would look to find the IP address of a domain?

local cache

Google runs two public DNS servers. One of them can be queried with the IP, what is the IP address of the other one?

If a DNS query has a TTL of 24 hours, what number would the dig query show?

TTL is displayed in seconds. To answer this question I needed to find the number of seconds in a 24 hour period. 24 hours x 60 minutes x 60 seconds = 86400 seconds.


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